Unit 1 Further reading Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: Jack C. Richards & Theodore S. Rodgers 外语教 学与研究出版社， 2000 How to be a good teacher: Scrivener, J. Learning Teaching. Heinemann 1994, Chapter 1 Communicative Language Teaching: Nunan, D. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge University Press 1989 How to plan lessons: Ur, P. A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press. 1996. Module 15 Classroom Management: Gower, R., Phillips,D. and Walters, S. Teaching Practice Handbook new edition. Heinemann 1995 How to teach listening: Underwood, M. Teaching Listening Skill. Longman. 1989 . How to teach speaking: Harmer, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching .new edition. Longman 1991. Chapter 8 How to teach reading: Grellet,F. Developing Reading Skills. Cambridge University Press . 1981 Harmer, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching . new edition. Longman. 1991. Chapter 10 How to teach writing: Tribble, C. Writing. Oxford University Press. 1996. Harmer, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching . new edition. Longman 1991. Chapter 7 & 8 How to use textbooks: Grant, N. Making the Most of Your Textbook. Longman. 1987. Keith Johnson. An Introduction to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press. 2003 《外语教学法丛书》 20 本 Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press The structural view The structural view sees language as a linguistic system. The system of language = the system of sounds + the system of words + the system of grammar The functional view (The functional-notional view) The functional view sees language as a linguistic system and as a means for doing things The interactional view The interactional view sees language as a communicative tool (to build up and maintain relations between people).
The interactional view sees language primarily as means for establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships and for performing transactions between individuals. The target of language learning is learning to initiate and maintain conversation with other people Two things are needed for communication Rules of language form (grammar & vocabulary) Rules of language use in a context (Is it appropriate to use this language item in this context?) Views on Language Learning Behaviorism Three basic behaviorist ideas about learning 1. Conditioning (Pavlov and the dribbling dogs): learning is seen as a question of developing connections (known as stimulus-response bonds) between events. 2. Habit formation (Skinner and the sporty pigeon) 3. The importance of the environment (writing on a clean slate) organism: person or animal that does the learning Environment: an event, a situation or another person (teacher or parent) Environment Organism The Cognitive theory Chomsky: Language is not a form of behaviour. It is an intricate (complicated) rule-based system. (Language is rule-governed.) There are a finite number of grammatical rules in the system and with knowledge of these rules an infinite number of sentences can be produced. (Language is generative. ) Students should be asked to think rather than simply repeat. Constructivist views Learning is a process in which the learner construct meaning based on his/her own experiences and what he/she already knows. Constructivism is a broad term used by philosophers, curriculum designers, psychologists, educators, and others. Most people who use the term emphasize “the learner’s contribution to meaning and learning through both individual and social activity”. Social constructivism Learning is best achieved through the dynamic interaction between the teacher and the learner and between learners. Vygotsky’s theory Vygotsky’ concept of the zone of proximal development: a child can solve a problem with the help (scaffolding) of an adult or more able peer. Vygotsky’s work formed the basis for the cooperative learning programs .He even recommended pairing more competent students with less competent students to elevate the latter’s competence. scaffolding Scaffolding: the technique of changing the level of support over the course of a teaching session; a
more-skilled person (teacher or more-advanced peer of the child) adjusts the amount of guidance to fit the student’s current performance. When the task the student is learning is new, the teacher might use direct instruction. As the student’s competence increases, less guidance is provided. Think of scaffolding in learning like the scaffolding used to construct a building. The scaffolding provides support when needed, but it is adjusted and gradually removed as the building approaches completion.Researchers found that when scaffolding is used by teachers and peers in collaborative learning, students’ learning benefits.